State-of-the-art C routines provided as easy-to-use library for Internet services.
Scope: What are the fehQlibs?
The software of Dan Bernstein (qmail, ucspi-tcp, djbdns) include supplementary C routines which obsoletes the usage of C's STDIO lib while replacing those by some safer implementations, in particular for string handling.
All this material is now public domain and the fehQlibs provide a basic framework for byte, string, I/O, socket, and IPv4/IPv6 handling in addition with the constant database cdb together with dnsstub resolver routines for Internet services applying the same or an even enhanced API.
The approach includes two main archives
- qlibs.a together with libqlibs.so and
- dnsresolv.a joined by (libdnsresolv.so)
simply to be linked (statically) with some IP applications without the hustle to care about the implemtation basics, header files, and potential bugs in here. Applications can focus on their duty and don't need to re-implement the basics.
The fehQlibs don't include any application routines but rather can be compiled and installed on most Unix system; serving as library only. Different from Dan Bernstein's implementation is the IPv6 conformance throughout and the error/log message interface.
History: Some background
Dan Bernstein used a series of own developed C routines as a replacement of the buggy and occassionally bloated C-library. Additional programs were included, providing services for a Constant Database (cdb), IPv4 address parsing and manipulation, IPv4 sockets and a DNS stub resolver.
These programs are kept stable and functioning over several software products Dan released over the years. However, some changes did occure, namely the use of buffer instead of substdio providing some better abstraction.
Felix von Leitner (and probably many others) used those routines as base for own releases, now put under the GNU license scheme (libowfat, djblib) and extending it's functionality significantly while including IPv6 support.
Kai Peter published an own djblib clone qlibs which was the starting point of fehQlibs. Given my previous experiences with Dan's routines, my objectives are to provide a clean socket interface for IPv4/IPv6 without the often needed case decisions. In addition, the dnsstub resolver has been upgraded to support IPv6 Link-local addresses (LLU) together with all the other IPv6 routines; allowing an additional interface-index to be included.
My attempt to use fehQlibs in version 10 for the forthcoming s/qmail based on those, required some additional enhancements, in particular for the dns stub resolver routines. The original qmail code uses the standards BIND API; unlike the more 'modern' SW packages of DJB. The current version of fehQlibs include these changes, though making it slightly incompatibel with previous versions given the DNS return codes.
Implementation: The details
The fehQlibs - though functionally complete - are in particular suited for devices with little resources only, IoT devices in particular. On the other hand, they perform extremely well for larger projects.
The following is the exhaustive list of '*.c' routines to be compiled provided by scope:
|Byte handling/ manipulation||byte.c, uint16p.c, uint32p.c, uint64p.c, uint128p.c|
|String handling/ manipulation||case.c, scan.c, str.c, ,stralloc.c, fmt.c|
|Input/output handling||buffer.c, fd.c, getln.c, getoptb.c, open.c, seek.c, readclose.c|
|IP address handling/ manipulation||ip4.c, ip6.c|
|Socket routines||socket_bind.c, socket_connect.c socket_if.c socket_info.c socket_recv.c socket_send.c, socket_setup.c, socket_tcp.c socket_udp.c|
|Network communication||timeout.c, timoutconn.c|
|Interprocess communication||iopause.c, lock.c ndelay.c pathexec.c, sig,c, wait.c|
|Constant Database||cdbmake.c, cdbread.c|
|Time routines||tai.c, taia.c|
|DNS stub routines||dns_ip.c, dns_cname.c, dns_name.c, dns_txt.c, dns_mx.c|
|DNS low level routines||dns_dfd.c, dns_domain.c, dns_dtda.c, dns_ipq.c, dns_nd.c, dns_packet.c, dns_random.c, dns_resolve.c, dns_rcip.c, dns_rcrw.c, dns_sortip.c, dns_transmit.c|
|Version & Download||Description||Verification||fehQlibs-13a||fehQlibs with enhanced/changed DNS stub resolver suited for s/qmail||MD5 (fehQlibs-13a.tgz) = da9d14a085bbde0c86b382bfe8f851ea
|fehQlibs-10a||Previous release of fehQlibs (10); now with fixed str_copy routine||MD5 (fehQlibs-10a.tgz) = 4740e6dca9a843bffa1136aa8a9f0619
The source code of fehQlibs-13 is documented in doxygen.
Installation is pretty easy:
- Untar the downloaded tar-file under /usr/local/.
- Compile it, while calling make within the directory ./fehQlibs-xy.
- I recommend to link this directory to /usr/local/qlibs for convenience (ln -s fehQlibs-xy qlibs).
- If required, install the man-files available under ./man in section 3 of your man directory manually.
That's it! The fehQlibs are a library. No executables are installed!
Usage with my routines (ucspi-tcp6, ucspi-ssl, djbdnscurve6)
Once you have downloaded and installed the fehQlibs, I expect those to be symlinked to /usr/local/qlibs.
However, if you provide the fehQlibs in a different directory, customize the configuration file conf-qlibs to comply with your settings.
Using fehQlibs requires just two steps:
Assuming your source code calls any of the routines
- include the location of the header files while calling the compiler; typically I use: cc -O2 -Wall -I/usr/local/qlibs/include
- tell the linker to use the qlibs and potentially dnsresolv libraries: cc -s -L/usr/local/qlibs -lqlibs -ldnsresolv
In case, you have projects based on Dan's strerr messages you need to include those as source code.
fehQlibs are known to install well and work under Linux (32/64 bit) on x86, FreeBSD, OmniOs, RasPi (Raspbian/FreeBSD 12), MacOS X (x86, PPC).
Errata & Changelog
|fehQlibs-13a||Fixed potential wrong 'negative' evalution of DNSCACHEIP in dns_rcip.c
Improved man pages.
|fehQlibs-13||New dnsstub resolver routines finished.
Version used for s/qmail and ucspi-X-y.11.* and the djbdnscurve6 > 35.
|fehQlibs-12/a/b/c||Experimental versions with enhanced dnsstub resolver routines.|
|fehQlibs-11||Unpublished and never used version of fehQlibs.|
|fehQlibs-10a|| Improved handling of poll and select calls
while using their return codes in addition.
Fixed wrong nesting of paranthesis in str_copy.
Added functions socket_dualstack and socket_nodualstack (providing better compatibility for OS which use socket option IPV6_V6ONLY).
For some backgrund on poll and IPV6_V6ONLY check
(a) Marek's (totally not insane) idea of the day
(b) Re: Disabling IPV6_V6ONLY a bad idea?
Added the 'shared object' (PIC) libqlibs.so and libdnsresolv.so libraries upon generation.
Attached LICENSE and CHANGELOG file.